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   2016| July-September  | Volume 36 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 9, 2016

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Identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis Minima Linn.) in Ayurvedic Classics: A Literature Review
Supriya S Kallianpur, Rohit A Gokarn, N Rajashekhar
July-September 2016, 36(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195408  PMID:28182025
Proper identification of drugs and their use in proper doses are important for successful treatment. Physalis minima Linn commonly known as country gooseberry has anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potentials. The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn.) in Ayurvedic classics by a meticulous search and hence a review of the drug Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn) was carried out in the texts of Ayurveda, modern literature, journals and online publications. The result of the search showed that the name “Ṭaṅkārī” is not found in Vedic lore. In Saṃhitās, it is mentioned in Bhāvaprakāśa. Reference of the drug “Śārṅgeṣṭhā” is found in Bṛhattrayī, Bhela, Kāśyapa, Cakradatta and Vaṅgasena. It is variously named as Cirapoṭikā, Kākatikta, and Vāyasī by ḍalhaṇa and he describes it as gaura (pale), vartula (round), and as having avaguṇṭhita/veṣṭhita (covered) fruit which matches the description of Ṭaṅkārī (P. minima Linn). A search for terms Kākatikta and Vāyasī showed Kākatikta to be synonymous to Śārṅgeṣṭhā and Vāyasī to be synonymous to both Kākatikta and Kākamācī (Solanum nigrum). Madanapāla and Śāligrāma Nighaṇṭus have mentioned the name Cirapoṭikā to be synonymous with Ṭaṅkārī. Śodhala has used the term Parpoṭī as a synonym of Ṭaṅkārī, which is the Gujarati name of P. minima Linn. Recent authors have considered Śārṅgeṣṭhā as either P. minima or Cardiospermum helicabum. The regional names of P. minima are Cirpoṭi (Hindi), Cirboli (Marathi), also the folklore uses and pharmacological activities of P. minima are in accordance with the indications of Śārṅgeṣṭhā in classics. Thus with a complete review of both Ayurveda and modern literatures, it can be concluded that the drug mentioned as Ṭaṅkārī in Bhāvaprakāśa is the same as Śārṅgeṣṭhā mentioned in the classics. Cirapoṭikā and Kākatikta are its synonyms. Cardiospermum helicabum is Karṇaspoṭha, and hence Śārṅgeṣṭhā of classics is P. minima which is supported by the regional names, pharmacological activity and folklore claims.
  14,484 258 3
Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy
Dhirajsingh Rajput Sumersingh, Rohit Gokarn, Chandrashekhar Y Jagtap, R Galib, BJ Patgiri, PK Prajapati
July-September 2016, 36(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195412  PMID:28182027
Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS) a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra. Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.
  5,737 343 2
Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika- Basella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant
TR Shantha, P Patchaimal, M Prathapa Reddy, R Kishore Kumar, Devesh Tewari, Vandana Bharti, G Venkateshwarlu, AK Mangal, MM Padhi, KS Dhiman
July-September 2016, 36(1):35-41
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195411  PMID:28182032
Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.
  5,017 228 2
Effect of Ayurveda Medications (Kasīsa Bhasma and Dhātrī Avaleha) on Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Study
Basavaraj Ramappa Tubaki, Jyoti Mahadev Benni, Niranjan Rao, Uchangi Nagaraja Rao Prasad
July-September 2016, 36(1):48-55
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195406  PMID:28182020
Background: This paper explores the role that Ayurveda can play in the management of Iron Deficiency Anaemia, a major nutritional deficiency disorder affecting people across the globe. Methodology: Forty (40) patients suffering from Iron deficiency anaemia as per WHO guidelines, between the age group of 20 to 60 yrs of either sex participated in the study. Study was a randomized, controlled, open label clinical study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group D (n = 20) received Dhārī avaleha 10 g twice a day after food. Group K (n = 20) received capsules Kasīsa bhasma 125 mg thrice a day. Both interventions were administered for 30 days and the subjects were followed up for next 30 days with placebo capsules to assess the sustainability of the effects. Assessments were done at baseline, 30th and 60th days. Primary outcome measure was hemoglobin estimation (Hb) and secondary outcome measures were the other hematological parameters such as Red blood cell (RBC) indices, total RBC count, Packed Cell volume (PCV) and Peripheral Blood smear study. Results: Both interventions produced significant improvements (P < 0.001). Kasīsa bhasma was better compared to dhārī avaleha in terms of primary (P < 0.0001) and secondary outcomes. Comparison of outcomes from base line – 30th day, base line – 60th day and 30th – 60th day showed significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in both the groups in parameters such as haemoglobin, MCV and MCH. Hence improvements sustained during placebo intervened sustainability period also. Conclusions: Study effectively shows that Kasīsa bhasma is better then Dhātrī avaleha. Improvements by both interventions were sustained even during the sustainability period.
  4,770 218 2
Improving Quality of Research on Herbals and its Reporting
DBA Narayana
July-September 2016, 36(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195413  PMID:28179748
  4,745 161 -
Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity
Arnab Dhar, Santosh Kumar Maurya, Ashish Mishra, Gireesh Kumar Singh, Manoj Kumar Singh, Ankit Seth
July-September 2016, 36(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195410  PMID:28182033
Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.
  4,372 228 7
A Randomized Single Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Monoherbal Formulation Containing Holarrhena antidysenterica Extract with Mesalamine in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Patients
Sarika Johari, Tejal Gandhi
July-September 2016, 36(1):19-27
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195409  PMID:28182023
Background: Incidences of side effects and relapses are very common in chronic ulcerative colitis patients after termination of the treatment. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to compare the treatment with monoherbal formulation of Holarrhena antidysenterica with Mesalamine in chronic ulcerative colitis patients with special emphasis to side effects and relapse. Settings and Design: Patients were enrolled from an Ayurveda Hospital and a private Hospital, Gujarat. The study was randomized, parallel group and single blind design. Materials and Methods: The protocol was approved by Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee of Anand Pharmacy College on 23rd Jan 2013. Three groups (n = 10) were treated with drug Mesalamine (Group I), monoherbal tablet (Group II) and combination of both (Group III) respectively. Baseline characteristics, factors affecting quality of life, chronicity of disease, signs and symptoms, body weight and laboratory investigations were recorded. Side effects and complications developed, if any were recorded during and after the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data was statistically evaluated using t-test, Wilcoxon test, Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA, wherever applicable, using GraphPad Prism 6. Results: All the groups responded positively to the treatments. All the patients were positive for occult blood in stool which reversed significantly after treatment along with rise in hemoglobin. Patients treated with herbal tablets alone showed maximal reduction in abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bowel frequency and stool consistency scores than Mesalamine treated patients. Treatment with herbal tablet alone and in combination with Mesalamine significantly reduced the stool infection. Patients treated with herbal drug alone and in combination did not report any side effects, relapse or complications while 50% patients treated with Mesalamine exhibited the relapse with diarrhea and flatulence after drug withdrawal. Conclusion: Thus, monoherbal formulation alone and with Mesalamine was efficacious than Mesalamine alone in UC.
  4,418 173 5
Effect of a Single Musical Cakra Activation Manoeuvre on Body Temperature: An Exploratory Study
Sundar Sumathy, Parin N Parmar
July-September 2016, 36(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195414  PMID:28182030
Cakra activation/balancing and music therapy are part of the traditional Indian healing system. Little is known about effect of musical (vocal) technique of cakra activation on body temperature. We conducted a single-session exploratory study to evaluate effects of a single musical (vocal) cakra activation manoeuvre on body temperature in controlled settings. Seven healthy adults performed a single musical (vocal) cakra activation manoeuvre for approximately 12 minutes in controlled environmental conditions. Pre- and post-manoeuvre body temperatures were recorded with a clinical mercury thermometer. After a single manoeuvre, increase in body temperature was recorded in all seven subjects. The range of increase in body temperature was from 0.2×F to 1.4×F; with mean temperature rise being 0.5×F and median temperature rise being 0.4×F. We conclude that a single session of musical (vocal) technique of cakra activation elevated body temperatures in all 7 subjects. Further research is required to study effects of various cakra activation techniques on body temperature and other physiological parameters.
  4,042 120 1
Preparation of Arjunāriṣṭa- Using Microbes Isolated from Woodfordia fruticosa Flowers (Dhayati)
Dheeraj S Randive, Sadik F Sayyad, Somnath Devidas Bhinge, Mangesh A Bhutkar
July-September 2016, 36(1):42-47
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195405  PMID:28182028
Objective: To verify the utility of isolated fermentative microbes from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers for preparation of Arjunāriṣṭa formulation and its comparative evaluation with the same formulation prepared by traditional method. Methodology: In the present technique, isolated colonies of microorganisms from Woodfordia fruticosa(Dhātakī) flowers on Saubroad dextrose media were separated and suspended in sterile water. This suspension was aseptically added in previously sterilized mixtures containing all intended ingredients for Arjunāriṣṭa which was thereafter incubated for 20 days at 37×C to achieve optimal fermentation. The formulation thus obtained was further subjected to various evaluation tests. Result: Arjunāriṣṭa was prepared using a new approach, and in that, isolated microorganisms from the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (Dhātakī) were used. It was found that the new approach was successful in generating approximately same quantities of alcohol content in comparison with traditional methods which have shown varying concentration of alcoholic content. Moreover, the new process prevents the growth of unwanted microbes thus, optimizing standards for purity and safety of the formulation. Conclusion: The formulation prepared by a new procedure showed marked uniformity for different parameters such as alcohol production, total phenol content, total solid content as compared to that prepared by the traditional method. Similarly, the results of thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography showed marked uniformity related to quality, safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of the new method as compared to the traditional one. Thus, the modern technique was found to show reproducibility and facilitate easier quality assessment.
  3,734 152 9
Is Redefining the Ayurvedic Proprietary Medicine Required?
Swapnil P Borse
July-September 2016, 36(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.195407  PMID:28182022
  3,069 153 1