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   2012| July-September  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 21, 2013

 
 
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BOOK REVIEW
Textbook of "Knowledge Traditions and Practices of India"
Kapil Kapoor, Michel Danino
July-September 2012, 32(1):59-60
  9,288 646 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Challenge of infertility: How protective the yoga therapy is?
Pallav Sengupta
July-September 2012, 32(1):61-62
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113796  PMID:23929997
  8,004 361 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn
R Kannan, UV Babu
July-September 2012, 32(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113792  PMID:23929988
Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.
  5,457 312 9
Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)
Manas Ranjan Mishra, Ashutosh Mishra, Dusmanta Kumar Pradhan, Rajani Kanta Behera, Shivesh Jha, Ashok Kumar Panda, Punit Ram Choudhary
July-September 2012, 32(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113800  PMID:23929991
This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.
  5,328 211 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature
S Aparna, Devendra Kumar Ved, S Lalitha, Padma Venkatasubramanian
July-September 2012, 32(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113790  PMID:23929986
Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes prescribed.
  4,391 449 3
CASE REPORT
Efficacy of Āyurvedictreatment using Pañcakarma combined with balance exercises for disability and balance in progressive supranuclear palsy
Nitin Jindal, Manoj K Shamkuwar, Jaskirat Kaur, Sadhan Berry
July-September 2012, 32(1):54-58
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113793  PMID:23929996
A 55-year-old female presented at Department of Pañcakarma with diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). For assessing disability, progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale (PSPRS) was used and balance was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System (IBS) posturography. Āyurvedic treatment was given along with Pañcakarma and balance exercises for 3 months. As part of Āyurvedic treatment, first Virecana karma was done with classical method and then Mātrā basti, Śirobasti, and other palliative treatment was given for 3 months. Amanatidine was not continued during Virecana karma but started thereafter. On comparison with pre-intervention scores, there was a significant improvement in the patient post-treatment. The features which mainly showed improvement were: Eye movements, spontaneous episodes of laughing, dysphagia, dysarthria, double vision, and neck rigidity. Balance showed significant improvement and there was a remarkable decrease in the postural sway. This case study may present new possibilities for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by Āyurveda.
  4,078 202 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity and reducing potential of polyherbal drug- Bhāran·gyādi
Divya Kumari Kajaria, Mayank Gangwar, Amit Kumar Sharma, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi, Jyoti Shankar Tripathi, Shrikant Tiwari
July-September 2012, 32(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113798  PMID:23929990
Background: Present work was designed to investigate antioxidant activity of polyherbal formulation in search for new, safe and inexpensive antioxidant. Clerodendrum serratum, Hedychium spicatum and Inula racemosa, were extensively used in ayurvedic medicine and were investigated together in the form of polyherbal compound (Bhāragyādi) for their antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from the above samples and was tested for total reducing power and in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS+ assay, Superoxide anion scavenging activity assay and lipid per-oxidation assay. Result: Reducing power shows dose depended increase in concentration maximum absorption of 0.677 ± 0.017 at 1000 μg/ml compared with standard Quercetin 0.856±0.020. ABTS+ assay shows maximum inhibition of 64.2 ± 0.86 with EC50 675.31 ± 4.24. Superoxide free radical shows maximum scavenging activity of 62.45 ± 1.86 with EC50 774.70 ± 5.45. Anti-lipidperoxidation free radicals scavenge maximum absorption of 67.25± 1.89 with EC50 is 700.08 ± 6.81. Ascorbic acid was used as standard with IC50 value is 4.6 μg/ml. The result suggests polyherbal formulation to be a good potential for antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress results from imbalance between free radical-generation and radical scavenging systems. This will lead to tissue damage and oxidative stress. Conclusion: In conclusion, we strongly suggest that Polyherbal compounds are source of potential antioxidant for radical scavenging. The highly positive correlation of antiradical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic content in Polyherbal compounds indicates that polyphenols are important components which could be used for the free radical scavenging activity. Further study is needed for isolation and characterization of the active moiety responsible for biological activity and to treat in various stress condition.
  3,946 241 5
A comparative antibacterial evaluation of raw and processed Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds
Sudipta Roy, Rabinarayan Acharya, Narayan C Mandal, Soma Barman, Ranjan Ghosh, Rajiv Roy
July-September 2012, 32(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113794  PMID:23929989
Background: Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds Methods: Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Results: Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations Conclusion: The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
  3,901 225 5
Standardization of the finished product: Habbe Irqun Nisa - A Unani anti-inflammatory formulation
S Farhan Husain, Irshad Ahmad, Shariq Shamsi
July-September 2012, 32(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113803  PMID:23929993
Background: Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative.The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study. Materials and Methods: HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research.
  3,908 203 -
INSTITUTE DIARY
The European Academy of Ayurveda: 20 years of Ayurvedic education in Germany
Mark Rosenberg
July-September 2012, 32(1):63-65
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113797  PMID:23929998
  3,873 192 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of a chewable tablet from Dugdhāmalakyādi Yoga: An Ayurvedic preparation
SB Santhosh, Arun B Ambi, RR Hiremath, VS Mannur
July-September 2012, 32(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113802  PMID:23929992
Background: Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Rasāyana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga, Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabhaṅga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose. Methodology: Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, Āmalaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets. Results and Conclusion: The physico-chemical analysis of Āmalaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of Āmalaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms.
  3,573 238 -
Study of Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam in amnesia
Kapil Deo Yadav, K. R. C. Reddy, Vikas Kumar
July-September 2012, 32(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113791  PMID:23929987
Objective: To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia. Materials and Methods: Brāhmī Ghta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śakhapupī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāa Ghta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study. Results: Brāhmī Ghta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghta and standard drug. Conclusion: Brāhmī Ghta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them.
  3,389 277 4
Performance in attentional tasks following meditative focusing and focusing without meditation
BR Raghavendra, Shirley Telles
July-September 2012, 32(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113799  PMID:23929995
Background/Aims: Ancient Indian yoga texts have described four mental states. These are caïcalatä (random thinking), ekāgratā (focusing without meditation), dhāranā (meditative focusing), and dhyāna (defocused meditative expansiveness). A previous study compared the performance in a cancellation task at the beginning and end of each of the four mental states (practiced for 20 minutes each, on four separate days) showed an increase in the scores after dhāranā. Hence, the present study was designed to assess the effects of dhāranā (meditative focusing) and ekāgratā (focusing without meditation) on two attention tasks (i) d2 test of attention and (ii) digit symbol substitution test. Materials and Methods: Sixty normal healthy male volunteers with ages ranging from 17 to 38 years (group mean age ± S.D., 24.87 ± 4.95) were studied. Assessments were made before and after the practice of ekāgratā and dhāranā on two separate days. Results: After both types of focusing, there was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and CP). However, the performance in the digit symbol substitution test was better after dhāraā but did not change after ekāgratā. Conclusions: Hence, in summary, dhāranā (meditative focusing) and ekāgratā (focusing without meditation) produce nearly comparable results though dhāranā (meditative focusing) results in better incidental learning and better accuracy (as assessed by the substitution task).
  3,468 169 5
EDITORIAL
Sustainable harvesting of medicinal plants: Some thoughts in search for solutions
P Ram Manohar
July-September 2012, 32(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113789  PMID:23929985
  2,846 262 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Physico-chemical analysis of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two methods
Vijaykumar Kotrannavar, Revanasidappa Sarashetty, Veena Kanthi
July-September 2012, 32(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.113801  PMID:23929994
Background: Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) is an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feathers by employing two different methods as mentioned in Siddhayogasaṅgraha and Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā. It is mainly indicated in vomiting, hiccough, and respiratory disorder. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame and the other by giving Gajapuṭa (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes). The products so obtained were subjected to various physico-chemical studies to find out ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content, preliminary organic analysis, gravimetric analysis, chemical components, and to lay-down the pharmacopeial standards for standardization of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma. Results and Conclusion: Both the Bhasmas exhibited marked difference in color, moisture content, and percentage of inorganic compounds. The Bhasma prepared by Gajapuṭa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in larger quantity, and lower moisture content.
  2,788 217 1
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