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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2018
Volume 37 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 175-234

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

A review on the elucidation of fundamentals of Ayurveda in rasavaiśeṣika through the concept of Prakṛti Highly accessed article p. 175
J Remya, K Sundaran, R Jishnu, SS Athri
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_138_20  
Background: rasavaiśeṣika stands distinct from the different literature works in Ayurveda available today. Although categorized as more significant in pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, the insight it throws on the fundamentals of Ayurveda is remarkable. Rasavaiśeṣika in sūtra form presents subjects in brevity and the necessity of bhāṣyakāra becomes mandatory to comprehend the idea. Aim: To decode the debate on prakṛti in rasavaiśeṣika to illuminate its intelligible way of presentation as well as the novel contributions to the fundamentals of Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Data is collected from the different editions of rasavaiśeṣika which is analyzed and discussed here. Results: The debate on prakṛti is presented by showcasing the proposition as well as opposition sides. The author disapproves taddoṣavattaprakṛtipakṣa as well as guṇavimiśraprakṛtipakṣa and establishes bāhulyapakṣa. Even though prakṛti remains intact throughout one's life from birth to death, its mental and physical expressions change as life advances. Also we have to take the notion of 'birth to until the person exhibits riṣṭa'. The prakṛti is not contingent on the doṣa predominance of śukra and śoṇita but also on the food and regimen of pregnant woman highlighting pre and post conceptional care in preventing hereditary diseases. Conclusion: The adept representation of prakṛti, bala etc., and the multiple ripples of thoughts Nagarjuna and Narasimha bring to our minds through rasavaiśeṣika makes it an exemplary pathfinder for the practitioners. It is the need of the hour to recognize the huge significance of rasavaiśeṣika and introduce it in to our academic curriculum.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of Navayasa Lauha, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation on experimentally-induced iron deficiency anemia p. 180
Namrata Joshi, Manoj Kumar Dash, Laxmikant Dwivedi, Gurudas Khilnani
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_5_19  
Background: Navayasa lauha (NL) is a herbometallic preparation (Rasaushadhi) widely used in Ayurveda as a hematinic agent. Nutritional deficiency is a main cause of anemia worldwide. Materials and Methods: NL was trialed on nutritional iron deficiency anemia induced by rice milk diet given for 2 months in albino rats. Iron-deficient rats were then treated with NL for 45 days, and assessment was done on the basis of peripheral blood picture, blood parameters, viz., hemoglobin%, Packed cell volume (PCV), Total red blood cell (TRBC) count, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration serum iron, and “decrease in total iron binding capacity (TIBC).” Results: A highly significant improvement (P < 0.001) in PCV, MCV, MCH, and TRBC and significant increase in Hb% (P < 0.05) and serum iron (P < 0.01), and significant decrease in TIBC (P < 0.01) were also observed. Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrate that NL could be a promising and safe herbomineral medicine in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any gastrointestinal upset, which are generally encountered with modern iron supplements. Significant increase in serum iron and significant decrease in TIBC are indicative of direct effect of trial drug on body iron store in the treatment of anemia.
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Antidiabetic and nephroprotective potential of polyherbal self-fermented Ariṣṭa formulation: Evidence-based research p. 188
Amitabha Dey, Satyajyoti Kanjilal, Rajarshi Biswas, Anjan Adhikari, Satyabrata Mohapatra, Deepa Gandhi, Bibhuti Nath Bhatt, Shiladitya Choudhuri, Pallabi Chakraborty, Tapas Kumar Sur, Avinash Narwaria, Chandra Kant Katiyar
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_61_19  
Background: Ayurvedic Ariṣṭa preparations hold an age-old heritage in the prevention and cure of metabolic disorders and associated complications. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the antidiabetic activity of a self-fermented Ariṣṭa preparation (DB-07) and its potential in preventing or curing diabetes-induced nephropathy in experimental models. Materials and Methods: Rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used for studying the various dose effects of DB-07 (2.5, 3, and 3.5 ml/kg/day) in preventive and therapeutic treatment schedules. Metformin (500 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. Fasting blood glucose and biochemical parameters such as blood protein, urea, uric acid, and creatinine were accessed by various biochemical tests. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay and 2-deoxy glucose uptake assay using rat L6 myotubes were studied for determining the antidiabetic mechanism of action. Results: A dose-dependent and statistically significant effect on lowering the fasting blood glucose level was observed in both preventive and therapeutic scheduled treatments. Treatment with DB-07 significantly reversed the altered biochemical parameters and the effects were comparable to metformin-treated rats. DB-07 exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes with an IC50 values of 10.93 μg/ml and 8.73 μg/ml, respectively. DB-07 also showed glucose uptake potential (ca. 70% activity at 125 μg/ml) in differentiated L6 myotubes. Conclusions: These observations have revealed the antidiabetic and nephroprotective potential of DB-07. DB-07 can be a potential herbal alternative to maintain a healthy blood glucose level and will prove useful in diabetes-associated renal complications.
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Anti-inflammatory profile of different plant parts of Agnimantha: A comparative evaluation of two entities enumerated in ayurvedic literature p. 200
Narasimha Baba Brindavanam, Gaya Prasad Kimothi, Pallu Reddanna, Rajaram Azad
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_62_19  
Background: Agnimantha is a constituent of the bṛhatpañcamūla (the roots drugs of 5 tree species) which in turn is a part of daśamūla used in Ayurvedic pharmaceutical practices. Traditionally, the concept of bṛhatpañcamūla envisages the usage of root/ root bark of these tree species. By and large, use of stem bark came into vogue many decades ago for this sub-group of daśamūla. Going by descriptions in Ayurvedic lexicon of medicinal plants- two species are considered as Agnimantha viz. Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. (Fam.: Lamiaceae) and Premna integrifolia L. (Syn. Premna serratifolia L) (Fam.: Lamiaceae). Objective: With an objective to address sustainability concerns associated with use of root or stem bark a comprehensive study was carried out on bṛhatpañcamūla group. This study kept the anti-inflammatory profile of candidate extracts in the centre-stage. As a part of this study, comparative assessment of two species used as Agnimantha was also carried out. Study Methodology: Different plant parts (Root bark, Stem bark, Leaves and Young roots) of C. phlomidis and P. integrifolia were collected from different parts of India. Each sample was extracted successively into four solvents. These extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory profile using a battery of in-vitro assays, involving inhibition of regulatory enzymes like 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), cyclooxygenase 1&2 (COX-1 & COX-2) and analysis of the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.Result and Conclusions: Both the species were observed to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity of varied degrees in this study. However, the sample of 12 months old roots of P. integrifolia was found to possess profound effect on all markers of inflammation. This sample was followed by 36 months old roots of C. phlomidis in terms of anti-inflammatory profile. Basing on these observations, the study suggests the use of 12 months roots of P. integrifolia (often referred to as Bṛhat-agnimantha) as part of daśamūla. Since the harvesting cycle is of 12 months, it is possible to produce the roots using High-Density Short-Term plantation protocols to address the sustainability concerns associated with use of root or stem bark.
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A cross sectional survey on quality of life and psychiatric morbidity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome p. 208
Divya Korampatta, Prakash Mangalasseri, Anitha K Viswambharan
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_6_18  
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multisystem disorder having a great impact on psychological and social functioning resulting in reduced Quality of life (QOL). Methodology: Women diagnosed with PCOS as per the Rotterdam criteria, in the age group of 18-40 without any history of psychiatric illness and recent stressful life events or trauma attending the OPD of Prasuti tantra evam Striroga of a tertiary care Ayurveda hospital were recruited for the study. A cross sectional study in 50 eligible women was carried out with World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL-90 R) to assess QOL and psychiatric morbidity respectively. As an important measure of QOL, sexual satisfaction was also measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: QOL was less than the mean value in 74% in the psychological domain and 68% in social domain and 62% each in physical and environmental domain indicating poorer QOL. On detailed psychological screening, mean scores of depression, obsessive- compulsive and anxiety domains were higher. Sexual satisfaction was moderate to high in married participants. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidities are highly prevalent in PCOS women and they have reduced QOL. These psychiatric morbidities should be addressed for better outcome in PCOS management.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Successful treatment of common warts with alum p. 214
Ehsan Saburi, Asma Behdari
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_79_18  
Verruca vulgaris (Vv) as named common wart is an epidermal proliferation caused by the Human Papilloma Virus. Due to specialists and equipment requirements as well as high cost, the most effective treatment for wart such as cryosurgery and electrocautery are not most popular, availability and minimally invasiveness of topical agents turned them into the most appropriate and preferred method especially in children and citizens with low incomes. The purpose of this study was evaluating the efficacy of Alum in the treatment of Vv in two cases. Warts have been disappeared and recurrences were not seen for more than one-year follow-up. For years, Alum used as a powerful adjuvant in many types of vaccines based on its role in immune system activation as adjuvant to activation of cytotoxic T-cells.
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Combined effect of yoga and sūtikāparicaryā in normal vaginal delivery and caesarean section: Case series p. 217
PS Sreeranjini, Anjaly Muraleedharan, Hemavathi Shivapura Krishnarajabhatt
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_15_18  
Pregnancy parturition and puerperium are the most important events taking place in a woman's life. Even though as we all aware of the importance of postnatal care, it is the most ignored in present era due to busy life schedule. As mentioned in our classics the śūnya śarīratva (Empty bodied) of sūtikā (Puerperal women) due to labour pains, rakta parisravaṇa (Bleeding) and dhātu śithilatā (Unsteadiness of dhātus) causes vāta kopa which may lead to diseases that become incurable or curable with difficulty. Proper adherence to postnatal care explained by āyurveda classics will results in faster restoration of mother's health by attaining replenishment of dhāthus, steadiness of body, and proper reproductive cycle. Along with the dietetic regulations and external therapies practicing some of the yoga procedures based on physical strength with restricted time, duration, and in a proper manner will provide an additional support in strengthening the abdominal, pelvic fascia and muscles, reducing the abdominal and pelvic girth, preventing excessive weight gain by reducing the fat deposition, and also helps in maintaining emotional stability. The study was conducted in 12 patients, 6 were included in normal vaginal delivery group and 6 included in caesarean section group. Along with sūtikāparicaryā specific yoga exercises were also advised. Remarkable outcome was noticed in reducing the weight and abdominal girth.
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Ocular toxicity in human subjects through accidental exposure to latex of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) bruyns p. 222
Shailaja Rajathurai, Parthasarathy Kannabiran, Sathiyarajeswaran Parameswaran
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_77_19  
Two cases of ocular injury due to accidental exposure to latex and vapors of Euphorbia umbellata are described in this report. With the direct exposure of eyes to split drops of latex and inhalation exposure to vapors resulted in severe conjunctival congestion with bilateral peri-orbital edema without pain and inflammatory features with intense burning sensation of both the eyes, photophobia, blurred vision, severe redness with blepharospasm, intense thirst, nausea, and projectile vomiting. The symptoms reduced markedly after vomiting induced by the consumption of Nilavembu Kudineer, a Siddha poly herbal decoction. Redness of eyes relieved immediately with the instillation of mother's milk. It is construed that the presence of phorbol esters, a type of diterpenes in the latex of Euphorbia umbellata could have produced inflammatory responses by virtue of histamine, cytokine, and protease release which induced vomiting, pain, heat, and redness. This case report emphasizes the importance of using personal protective equipment such as goggles, gloves, and face mask while collecting and preparing medicines using the aerial parts of Euphorbia umbellata.
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RESEARCH IN PROGRESS/SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Seminar training for sensitization of final year undergraduate ayurveda students about knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of research p. 226
Amit Nakanekar, Maneesha Kothekar, Swapnil Bhowte, Kiran Tawalare, Snehavibha Mishra
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_58_19  
Background: Knowledge and training in research skills and knowledge of research in early career have been related with continued professional growth and helps to produce good future researchers in society. Central Council of Indian Medicine has recently introduced research methodology as a subject in the final year of the Bachelor of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) curriculum. Hence, we designed a seminar training program for final year BAMS students to assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Aptitude toward Research Methodology and Medical Statistics among final year BAMS students and to evaluate the impact of 2-day seminar of this subject. Methodology: An interventional study has been carried out for 2 days 9th and 10th August 2016. Out of 77 enrolled participants, 64 were assessed by predefined, tested, and validated questionnaires for knowledge attitude and aptitude before and after seminar training. Feedback of students about their outlooks and problems was also taken in focused group discussion. Results: Out of 77 enrolled participants, 11 participants were absent and 66 were present. Out of 66 who attended 2 dropouts, and 64 participants successfully completed. Out of 66 who attended 10 were males and 56 were females. Significant impact of the seminar was found to sensitize in all three domains. Nonparametric correlation was also presented between knowledge attitude and aptitude (ŕ = 0.4757 and ŕ = 0.2614). Many of Ayurveda students also talked about the unavailability of teachers and books for this subject. They also demanded interpathy mixed trainers for such training. Conclusion: Such type of seminar training is beneficial for the students. Compulsory training of 2–3 days for undergraduate students at the university level would definitely be a positive step to develop interest for this newly included subject at the undergraduate level.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Vīrasiṃhāvalokaḥ:” Āyurvedic classic with applied Jyotiṣyaśāstra and Dharmaśāstra p. 231
Santhosh K Avangapur
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_83_20  
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