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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-99

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication18-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Swapnil Y Chaudhari
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.153469

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Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit.
Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done.
Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

Keywords: Citrus jambhiri Lush, Jambira Nimbū, pharmacognosy, prismatic crystals

How to cite this article:
Chaudhari SY, Harisha C R, Galib R, Prajapati P K. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit. Ancient Sci Life 2014;34:96-9

How to cite this URL:
Chaudhari SY, Harisha C R, Galib R, Prajapati P K. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Mar 25];34:96-9. Available from: https://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2014/34/2/96/153469

  Introduction Top

Therapeutically, plant species are mostly used in Ayurveda, and good therapeutic effect is directly proportional to genuine raw material. Hence, correct identification of raw material becomes mandatory. Proper identification of the drug depending only on parameters described in the ancient literature becomes difficult due to various reasons. To eliminate adulterants and to provide authentification of raw material, study through relevant pharmacognostical parameters is essential.

Different species of Citrus family are used for different pharmaceutical and therapeutic purposes. Citrus jambhiri Lush. is known as Jambira Nimbū in Ayurveda [Figure 1]. It is a medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon found throughout India. [1] The fresh juice as such or the concentrated juice is used in arthritis and digestive disorders. [2] Ethno botanical studies reported antiemetic activity of root and stem. [3] In Rasaśāstra classics, juice of Jambira is used in Śodhana, [4] Māraṇa[5] and Bhāvana[6] and Anupāna[7] processes. Review of literature reveals that this fruit has not been studied in detail for pharmacognostical characters. Hence, the present work was undertaken to establish certain identification standards of C. jambhiri Lush.
Figure 1: Live plant of Citrus jambhiri Lush.

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  Materials and Methods Top

Fresh fruit of C. Jambiri, was collected from a local vegetable market of Jamnagar. Botanical identification was done with the help of various floras, and it was authenticated at the Pharmacognosy lab, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar. Organoleptic characters like color, taste, touch and odor were recorded. Thin free hand sections were studied without and with staining (phloroglucinol and concentrated HCl). Powder microscopy of shade-dried powder (#60) was carried out. [8] Photomicrographs were taken using Carl zeiss trinocular microscope attached to camera. Histochemical studies were carried out by taking free hand sections of fruit treated with various reagents, and we found tannin, mucilage, etc. [9] Physicochemical profiling was carried out from shade-dried powder. [10]

  Results and Discussion Top


Fruit, hispiridium 5-10 cm long, ovoid, oblong, globose, nipple shaped at the end with and rough or irregular or warted rind [Figure 2]. Rind was 2-3 cm in thickness, leathery, aromatic and encloses multicarpelled (nearly 9-10) segments or locules. Each locule encloses abundant juice sacs and contains 3-5 seeds; dark green when unripe and yellow when ripe, pulp is pale yellow, taste acidic and sweetish. At the centre of the fruit, there are thick thread-like structures holding carpels forming column [Figure 2]a.
Figure 2:

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T.S. of fruit

Diagrammatic section of fruit shows outer rind, middle segments and the central axis. Transverse section of rind shows lysogenous cells [Figure 3]a and flavido region [Figure 3]b.
Figure 3: (a) Lysogenous cells, (b) flavido region, (c) oil globules, (d) prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, (e) annular and scalariform vessels, (f) juicy sac, (g and h) central axis or column

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The detailed section shows exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Exocarp has outer compactly arranged cells (flavido zone) and inner loosely arranged albido zone. Exocarp consists of single layered rectangular cells with a thin cuticle. Outermost layer of the flavido zone is the single layered epidermis. Some of the epidermal cells are interrupted by stomata. Many layers of thin walled parenchyma cells are present below the epidermis. Many lysogenous cavities are found all over the section with oil globules [Figure 3]c. Some of the parenchyma cells also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate [Figure 3]d. Below the flavido zone, mesocarp with loosely arranged aerenchyma cells forming the network like albido zone. Some of the vascular bundles were distributed in albido zone. Annular and scalariform vessels were also found [Figure 3]e.

Each juicy sac [Figure 3]f was made up of outer compactly arranged 10-15 layers of elongated compressed parenchyma cells, while inner loosely arranged parenchyma cells consisted of prismatic crystals.

Central thick thread-like structure called central axis or column was noticed [Figure 3]g and h. It consists of outer single layered barrel-shaped cells and central pith consisting loosely arranged parenchyma cells. Many vascular bundles are distributed all over the pith.

Powder microscopy

Organoleptic characters

Organoleptic characters like color, odor and taste were recorded [Table 1].
Table 1: Organoleptic characters of powder

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Diagnostic characters of powder shows fibers with epidermal cells [Figure 4]a, fragments of epicarp cells, fragments of the term has uniformly has been referred as albido [Figure 4]b and flavido [Figure 4]c, oil globules [Figure 4]d, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate [Figure 4]e, annular vessels, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels [Figure 4]f, spiral vessels [Figure 4]g, tannin content [Figure 4]h, mesocarp cells and fragments of column.
Figure 4: (a) Fibers with epidermal cells, (b) fragments of albido, (c) fragments of flavido, (d) oil globules, (e) prismatic crystals of calcium oxa­late, (f) scalariform vessels, (g) spiral vessels, (h) tannin content

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Histochemical evaluation

Thick sections were subjected to various chemical tests, and tannin and lignin etc., were detected [Table 2].
Table 2: Histochemical evaluation of thick sections

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Physicochemical evaluation

Parameters like loss on drying, ash value, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, pH, specific gravity and total solid content were carried out, observed results are summarized at [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 3: Physicochemical evaluation of powder

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Table 4: Particulars of Jambiri Nimbū Swarasa

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  Conclusion Top

Pharmacognostical study of C. jambhiri Lush. provides specific parameters that will be useful for identification and authentication of the drug. Parenchyma cells, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, central axis consisting outer single layered barrel-shaped cells and central pith consist loosely arranged parenchyma cells are the prominent characters that distinguish it from other plant species. As no published reports are available on this plant, the results obtained in the current study may be referred as a standard in future studies.

  References Top

Gupta AK, Sharma M. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 6. New Delhi: ICMR; 2008. p. 473.  Back to cited text no. 1
CSIR. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, The Wealth of India (Raw Materials). Vol. 3. New Delhi: Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR; 1992. p. 614.  Back to cited text no. 2
Samal PK, Shah A, Tiwari SC, Agrawal DK. Indigenous healthcare practices and their linkages with bioresource conservation and socio-economic development in Central Himalayan region of India. Indian J Tradit Knowledge 2004;3:12-26.  Back to cited text no. 3
Sharma AS. Rasa Tarangini, 12/6. 11 th ed. Reprint 2000. New Delhi: Motilala Banarsidas; 2000. p. 285.  Back to cited text no. 4
Vagbhatacharya. Rasaratnasamucchaya, 5/53. Reprint edition 2007. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachamandas Publications; 2007. p. 101.  Back to cited text no. 5
Sen GD. Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Agnimandya Adhikara 93-94. Reprint 2011. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Prakashana; 2011. p. 341.  Back to cited text no. 6
Sastri VL, Yogaratnakara, Vidyotini Hindi Commentary. Reprint edition 2005. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2005. p. 244.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 2003. p. 28-93.  Back to cited text no. 8
Krishnamurty KV. Methods in the Plant Histochemistry. Madras: Vishwanadhan Pvt Limited; 1988. p. 1-77.  Back to cited text no. 9
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1. Vol. 3. Appendix-2. New Delhi: Govt. of India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2001. p. 207.  Back to cited text no. 10


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

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